|Disease||Affects Primarily||Cause||Signs & Lesions||
|Abnormal Egg Shells||Chickens||Improper nutrition, disease, physical condition of hen.||Soft egg, cracked eggs.||P-make
sure laying hens are free from disease & feed a laying mash. Give oyster
shells to hens.
T-proper nutrition to hens.
(CRS, colds, infectious sinusitis
|Chickens, turkeys, all ages||Egg transmitted. Also by contact with infected birds (healthy carriers).||Coughing, sneezing, runny nose. Stress or secondary infection increases severity. Transmitted slowly through flock.||P-Don't
mix age groups. Get chicks or poults from MG-free birds.
T-Encourage eating. Some antibiotics help.
|Ammonia Burns||All birds||Ammonia gases created in damp litter.||Lopsided shape of eyes, watery eyes, facial swelling, may become blind||P-Keep litter clean & dry. T-remove wet litter & feed Vitamin A.|
|Chicks, poults||Birds inhale spores from moldy feed, litter, dust.||Gasping, loss of appetite, increased thirst.||P-Avoid
sources of mold. Control dust.
T-Clean, disinfect. Change litter.
|Blackhead||Turkeys||Transmitted by eating contaminated substances or direct contact with infected birds or droppings.||Darkening of head, loss of appetite, droopiness, sulfur-colored droppings.||P-Keep
turkeys away from chickens.
T-Hepzide, Enhaptin, Emytryl-follow vet & label recommendations.
|Blue Comb||Turkeys||Transmitted by eating contaminated substances or direct contact with infected birds or droppings.||Weight loss, constant chirping, bluish colored head.||P-Get rid of birds, disinfect & leave empty for a time. T-Raise temperature in building, use antibiotics & vitamins.|
|Breast Blisters||All birds, more common in heavier breeds.||Sharp edges of feeder or waterers.||A blister on the breast contains clear or bloody fluids.||T-Drain with a sterile needle and rinse with Potassium.|
|Broodiness||Turkeys, chickens||Hen wants to hatch something.||Hens sitting in nests, returns to nest after being chased off.||P-Remove
egg from nest, provide roosts for fowl.
T-Change hen to different pen. Remove eggs, remove hens from nest or let her hatch something.
|Infectious Bronchitis||Chickens||Virus. Airborne from infected flocks.||Rapid onset. Sneezing, coughing, watery eyes. Flock symptoms may last 10-14 days. Production drops, small or soft-shelled eggs.||P-Vaccinate
before lay if an important problem in your flock.
T-None. Permanent problem.
|Botulism||All birds||Toxic birds eat decaying animal or vegetable material. Toxin is soluble so can be in water or maggots.||Extreme weakness. Paralysis of legs, wings, neck. Bird cannot swallow. Feathers easily removed. Head hangs, swollen wattles, difficult breathing, dark head & wattles.||P-Clean
yards. Don't use spoiled food.
T-Place bird in shade. Fill crop with water twice daily. Give Epsom salts (1 lb. to 5 gal. water) into crop. Remove dead animals.
|Bumble foot||All birds||Cuts or bruises on foot pad allow entrance of organisms.||Lameness, swollen foot, scab on foot pad.||P-Avoid
high roosts, sharp litter.
T-Open abscess with sharp knife, remove pus, paint with iodine or sulfa ointment.
|Cannibalism||All birds||Bright colors, too crowded, too hot, not enough feeders or waterers, lack of entertainment.||Picking at one another.||P-Provide enough room, food, water, possibly entertainment for birds.|
|Fowl Cholera||Most birds||Contact with feces of sick birds, carcasses of dead birds. Rodents, contaminated soil, water, feed.||Birds may die before there are visible symptoms. Dead on roost, yellow-green diarrhea.||P-Clean ground, good management. Eliminate rodents, predators. Medications, use clear antibiotics for layers. Complete clean out.|
|Coccidiosis||Chickens, turkeys, one of most prevalent diseases worldwide.||Eating droppings containing infective parasites. Coccidian invade intestinal tract lining, produce tissue damage while multiplying.||Possible high mortality. Pale, droopy, huddle, use less feed, water. Production drops. Bloody droppings.||Use preventive drugs (coccidiostats). Screen droppings from birds. In acute outbreak give recommended drugs in water according to directions. May try (1/4 c. vinegar to each gal. water).|
|Infectious Coryza||Chickens only||Recovered apparently healthy birds remain carriers. Contact at poultry shows. Sick birds. Dust or water contaminated by discharge.||Rapid onset. Swollen sinuses, nasal discharge, eyelid may stick shut, drop in feed consumption & egg production.||P-Don't
mix age groups.
T-Antibiotics or sulfa drugs effective in some cases. Use as cleared by vet.
|Enteritis (diarrhea)||All birds||Many causes, most unknown. High salt in feed. Droppings in infected birds.||Watery, discolored droppings. Layers may drop in production.||P-Sanitation & good ration. T-Get specific diagnosis. Antibiotics. Avoid metal waterers.|
|Hemorrhagic Enteritis||Turkeys||Virus-Spread from eating infected feed, water, litter & droppings. Change in weather or feed.||Sudden death & blood from vent.||P-Disinfect
hands & boots when tending sick birds.
|Influenza||Geese-possibly ducks||Bacteria-Passed on by infected birds.||Coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, death||P-Clean & disinfect pens. T-Sulfademetharine|
|Joint & Respiratory Disease||Chicks 4-12 weeks||Egg transmittable direct contact through air, equipment & people.||Lameness, loss of weight, green droppings, breast blisters, limping, affects respiratory.||T-Need not treat CRS, will butcher sooner. Treat other fowl with Tetracycline or Erythromycin.|
|Laryngotrachetis (trachy, LT)||Chickens, pheasants||Virus. Infected birds; unwise use of vaccine, carriers; airborne; contaminated clothes & equipment.||Rapid spread. Coughing, sneezing, gurgling. Blood or cheesy plug in windpipe. May be high mortality.||P-Vaccinate,
but only if a problem in your area. Do not vaccinate unnecessarily.
|Leg Problems||All birds||Accidents, inadequate nutrition, lack of vitamins, slippery surface, bacteria, virus, infections.||Swollen joints, soft bones, twisted legs, broken bones, swollen feet, paralysis, legs flex sideways.||PT-Determine causes & use the proper treatment or preventive measures. Use peat moss & wood chips, no newspaper.|
|Lice||All birds||Ducks & geese if housed with chickens are likely the cause. Chew on skin; dry skin.||Lack of appetite, diarrhea, sleeplessness, set less, lower egg production.||P-Clean
buildings & use roost paint.
T-Dust adults with Sevin.
|Lymphoid Leukosis (Big liver disease)||Chickens||Virus. Egg borne or transmitted to very young chicks from infected older birds.||Weight loss. Green droppings, tumors, enlarged liver. Sick birds usually die. Deformed, thickened leg bones.||P-Brood
away from older chicks.
|Chickens||Herpes virus. Airborne or other contaminated skin & feather dust (dander). Contaminated litter. Infected birds.||Gray eye, enlarged feather follicles, paralysis of wings, legs, neck.||P-Vaccinate
day-old chicks. Buy vaccinated chicks.
|Mycoplasma Gallisepticum (MG) Also known as Infectious Sinusitis in turkeys.||Most birds||Mycoplasma organisms. Spread mainly by infected birds coming in contact with others. Also spread by careless humans, contaminated equipment, and vehicles.||Symptoms of turkeys in the upper form of the disease are watery eyes, noisy breathing, unthriftiness, water discharge from nostrils, and swollen sinuses below the eyes||P-isolate
||Most birds||Virus. Contaminated equipment, shoes, clothing. Contact with infected birds.||Gasping, coughing, nasal discharge, uncoordination, paralysis. Rapid spread, high mortality. Adults may show only respiratory symptoms & egg productions drop||P-Vaccination.
|Omphalitis (Mushy Chicken disease)||Baby chicks||Unsanitary conditions in hatchery.||Chicks huddle-dropping heads.||P-Make sure hatchery is known for sanitary conditions-know where birds are coming from.|
|Pasty Rear Ends||Mostly chickens||Lack of activity. Stress in transporting.||Manure sticks to the rear-end of birds.||P-Use
a scratch feed & increase activity of chickens.
T-Remove manure from rear end with mild soap.
|Avian Pox||Most birds||Virus. Direct contact with infected birds. Mosquitoes carry virus from wild & other birds.||Dry Pox; small yellow warts on wattles, comb, face. These increase in size. Dark brown scabs form, then drop off. Wet Pox; yellow, cheesy lesions in mouth, windpipe.||P-Vaccination
is recommended in areas of large mosquito populations.
T-Swab lesion with Lugol's solution of iodine.
|Paratyphoid||Poults, chicks||Egg shell penetration. Eating or contact with droppings of infected carriers.||Huddling near heat, closed eyes, drooping wings, diarrhea, pasted vent, increased peeping sounds.||P-Egg
sanitation. Rodent & snake control.
T-Drugs, antibiotics. Follow label recommendations.
|Pullorum Disease||Chickens, turkeys, pheasants, guineas||Egg shell penetration. Eating or contact with droppings of infected carriers.||Pasted vents in chicks 1 to 21 days old, sudden death or huddling, pneumonia.||P-Buy
T-Various drugs, antibiotics. Follow label recommendations. Destroy birds.
|Rickets||Young chickens (4wks) mostly top heavy & Cornish Rock.||Deficiency of Vitamin D & Calcium (can't have excess of either).||Chickens become crippled.||T-Increase Vitamin D intake as per Veterinarian instructions|
|Staggering||Ducks||Out of water||Choking or otherwise dizzy because of food caught in esophagus.||P-Never
let ducks run out of water.
T-Always have water for ducks.
|Worms||All birds. Don't affect ducks & geese as much.||Roundworms-eggs directly move from bird to bird through feces. Tapeworms-transmitted by flies, etc. that contact contaminated feces.||May cause unthriftiness & slow growth. Roundworms-3-6 inches long, pencil lead in diameter. Tapeworms-flat ribbon-like, segmented.||P-Rotate
birds in yards or pens. Screen off areas of heavy fecal deposits.
T-Various drugs. Follow label.